From "Double 8" to "Super 8"
The 8 mm movie camera series of Nippon Kogaku K.K., started with "NIKKOREX-8" (released in December of 1960 (in March of 1961 in Japan), see Part 18.) was followed by new products one after another according to the change of the 8 mm movie camera of the world.
Especially big change broke out in 1965. It was the appearance of so-called "Type S" standard film.
The 8 mm movie film up to that time was called "Double 8" and it adopted a complicated system that used film of 16 mm wide, and after 25 feet of the first half width of the film was finished, the film was reversed and shooting was made with rewinding the film.
It was the means of simplifying this operation of "reversing the film" that the prototype prior to "NIKKOREX-8" introduced in the last part adopted a special film magazine.
Then, a new film standard appeared, which eliminated this inconvenience using the film of 8 mm wide from the beginning, and that the frame size (area) was enlarged by 50 percent with decreasing the size of perforation (the holes for advancing the film). This was the film called "Type S".
Such new standardization of 8 mm movie film had been proceeded by Fuji Photo Film of Japan and Eastman KODAK of U.S.A. separately. Both parties made mutual concessions in the way and the frame size and the perforation size were standardized as "Type S". However, the film cartridges were made separately as "Single 8" of Fuji and "Super 8" of KODAK, thus the cameras were separate, though the projector was common for both.
As it was quite obvious that this new "Type S" film was superior than conventional "Double 8", manufacturers which marketed 8 mm movie camera all developed cameras adopting either "Single 8" or "Super 8" of these new standards.
After examining these new standards, Nippon Kogaku decided to adopt "Super 8" in consideration of the dominant position of KODAK in export markets, and released Nikon "SUPER ZOOM-8" equipped with 5X zoom lens (see photo) in 1966, at the first step.